亚马逊reserve,英国女孩“嫁”给亚马逊土著

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英国女孩“嫁”给亚马逊土著

A British film maker who 'married' a tribal warrior says she agreed to it to highlight the oil giants destroying his Amazon home. 英国一位电影制片人日前把自己“下嫁”到了土著部落,她表示自己同意与一位土著武士“成婚”是为了警醒世人,石油巨头企业正在摧毁土著人赖以生存的亚马逊家园。

Sarah Begum underwent the symbolic ritual aged just 21 after she left London to spend two weeks with the Huaroani tribe, which has 3,000 members in the mineral-rich Ecuadorian rainforest. 当时年仅21岁的莎拉·贝谷姆(Sarah Begum)参与了这场象征性的结婚仪式。此前,她离开伦敦远赴厄瓜多尔热带雨林,与居住在这块矿藏宝地上的3000名瓦欧达尼族(Huaroani)居民一起生活了两个星期。

Despite historically tense relations with outsiders dating to the 1950s, when five U.S. missionaries who tried to infiltrate the tribe were killed, she claimed she was welcomed with open arms. 上世纪50年代,五名试图进入该部落的美国传教士被处死,从此该部落与外界的关系颇为紧张。尽管如此,贝谷姆表示居民们是张开双臂来欢迎她的。

She learned how to weave with grasses and hunt with a blowpipe, and by the end of the period she had 'married' a warrior in his 50s named Ginkto - who spoke only the villagers' own Huaroani dialect and a few words of Spanish. 她学会了用草编织,用吹火管打猎,临近结束时,她还与一位名为金克托(Ginkto)的武士“喜结连理”。50多岁的金克托只会说当地村民使用的瓦欧达尼族方言和几个西班牙语单词。

It was a symbolic gesture to spread the tribe's plea for help against oil firms, not a legally binding marriage - but the language barrier meant things were not obvious at the start. 这只是一个象征性的婚礼,目的是寻求外界帮助该部落反抗石油企业,并不具有法律约束力——但双方之间存在的语言障碍让贝谷姆一开始并不清楚这场婚礼的性质。

'I was chosen by the elders and I had no idea what was going to happen to me,' she said. “当时那些长者选中了我,我不知道接下来会发生什么。”她说道。

'I was called into a hut and everyone inside was naked. I was told they were making me their traditional clothes, which is a piece of string made of plant fibres worn around the waist – not even a thong. “我被叫进一间小棚屋,里面的每个人都浑身赤裸。他们告诉我他们正在为我制作一件传统服装:一条由植物纤维制成的绳子,系在腰上——连丁字裤都称不上。

'I thought, "I can't get naked, this is being filmed", and for a split second I thought about running away, but I wanted to fully embrace and understand their traditions. “当时我想,镜头正在拍摄,我不能赤裸身体,有一瞬间我在考虑逃跑,但我想完全接受并了解他们的传统。”

'One of the women pulled off my underwear, and I gave in from there. The elder leader was chanting and the women were making chicha, their home-brewed beverage. “有一个女人脱下我的内衣,我是从那一刻开始让步的。年迈的领袖在诵经,女人们在酿制吉开酒(chicha)——一种自制的饮料。"

'They were happy that I was totally naked and started to make a crown for me out of macaw feathers. “当我愿意赤裸全身时,他们显得非常高兴,并开始为我制作一个由鹦鹉羽毛制成的花冠。

'I was told, "they are going to make you Queen". I was surrounded by the women and warriors chanting and dancing in the hut - I thought I was being initiated. “有人告诉我,他们要封我为女王。在棚屋里,一群又唱又跳的女人和勇士们簇拥着我,我想我要被接纳成为部落一员了。”

'They gave me the chicha drink and the name Imaca, which means The Last Name, before marrying me to my husband-to-be, the tribe's most popular warrior, Ginkto.' “在我嫁给我未来的丈夫——部落最有名的战士——金克托之前,他们递给我一杯吉开酒并给我起名为伊玛卡(Imaca),意思是‘最后之名’(The Last Name)。”

'I had no idea what was going on. At first I thought it was just an initiation ceremony but then there was this guy next to me who had his arms around me. It was so surreal.' “我不知道接下来会发生什么,一开始我以为这只是一种加入仪式,但接下来,这个男子站我旁边并伸出双臂搂住我,这种感觉太离奇了。”

She said she was shocked at first, but it was explained that she was not expected to have a sexual relationship with Ginkto. Instead the marriage was an honorary one to build trust with the tribe. 她表示一开始被吓到了,但后来她才知道她并不需要与金克托发生实质关系,这个婚礼只是一种荣誉仪式,代表着她与部落建立了信任。

'They knew why I was there and wanted to show me how they lived', she said. “他们知道我来这里的目的,所以只是想给我展示他们是怎样生活的,”她说。

'Ginkto is a lovely guy and a strong hunter, which makes him very popular with the women. He was also very funny and curious about my life in London. “金克托是个好人,也是一位勇猛的猎手,这让他在女性中十分受欢迎,而且他非常有趣,对我在伦敦的生活也很好奇。”

'We communicated through one of the other warriors who spoke Spanish to my cameraman. He asked all about my parents, my family and friends.' “另外一名武士和我的摄像师讲西班牙语,来充当我们的翻译,金克托询问了我所有亲朋好友的情况。”

Ms Begum was one of many 'eco-tourists' and documentary makers hosted by the tribe over the years, but insisted the wedding ceremony was a rare occurrence. 贝谷姆是该部落近年来接待的众多“环保旅行者”和纪录片拍摄者中的一位,但她坚称这种婚礼仪式是很罕见的。

However, she was not the only Briton who Ginkto 'married'. 然而,她并不是唯一一个和金克托“结婚”的英国人。

Two years earlier the same tribal warrior 'wed' Karen Morris-Lanz, a single mother from Milton Keynes who went to live briefly in the village. In that case, however, it was for a BBC documentary specifically about marriage. 早在两年前,金克托与一位来自英国米尔顿·凯恩斯(Milton Keynes)的单亲母亲卡伦·莫里斯-兰斯(Karen Morris-Lanz)“结婚”,她在这个村落里逗留的时间不长,当时是为了给英国广播公司(BBC)拍摄关于婚姻的纪录片。

'We're now friends', said Ms Bergum. 'It's led to quite a lot of jokes'. 贝谷姆说,“相处过程中发生了不少趣事。而现在我们是朋友了。”

Now 26, Ms Begum made her experiences into a half-hour documentary, Amazon Souls, which was shown at the Cannes Film Festival last year. 今年26岁的贝谷姆将自己的经历做成了一部时长半小时的纪录片《亚马逊之魂》(Amazon Souls),该片在2013年戛纳电影节上映。

Since then it has been accepted at the Sheffield Doc/Fest and Adventure Travel Film Festival, and this year Ms Begum was made a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. 此后,该纪录片也在谢菲尔德纪录片电影节(Sheffield Doc/Fest)和冒险电影节(Adventure Travel Film Festival)中获得认可。2014年,贝谷姆成为英国皇家地理学会(the Royal Geographical Society)的成员。

She was finishing a film degree at Kingston University in Surrey when she set off on her self-funded trip in 2010 to Ecuador's Yasuni National Park, fulfilling a dream which began when she was nine. 2010年,她在位于美国萨里(Surrey)的金斯顿大学(Kingston University)获得电影学学位,并自费前往厄瓜多尔国的亚苏尼国家公园(Yasuni National Park),这次旅行圆了她自九岁开始的梦想。

'By the time I was in film school I felt I wasn't really being prepared for the real world,' she said. 'I wanted to do something with my life and for my future so I decided to literally follow my dream. “当我还在电影学校时,觉得自己还没有准备好去面对大千世界,”她说道,“我想给自己的生命增添点什么,为未来积累点什么,所以我决定追随自己的梦想。

'I quit my job, used all my savings, hired a cinematographer from New York and a sound guy from Portsmouth. I did some research about this tribe in the Amazon and just went there.' “我辞掉工作,花掉所有积蓄,雇了一位来自纽约的电影摄影技师,和一位来自英国朴茨茅斯(Portsmouth)的音响师。我查找了一些该部落的资料,然后就出发了。”

She won the 5,800-mile air fare as one of ten finalists in the national Enterprising Student Awards - the only woman that year. Other funds came from private investors before the trip. 那一年,贝谷姆获得了英国十佳进步学生奖(Enterprising Student Awards),是当年唯一一名获奖女生,她获得了5800英里的飞行里程。其它资金均来源于成行前所获的私人资助。

Once in Ecuador she met her colleagues, British sound engineer Stephen Bull and American cinematographer Frank Angelcyk, and taught English to children in the Amazon region before venturing deeper into the jungle. 厄瓜多尔之行使她遇到了自己的同事:英国音响工程师斯蒂芬·布尔(Stephen Bull)和美国电影摄影技师弗兰克·安吉尔西克(Frank Angelcyk),并使她有机会在进一步深入亚马逊丛林前,给亚马逊地区的孩子教授英文。

Despite not being able to swim, she travelled by boat for two days from the town of Coca through piranha and alligator infested waters, stopping overnight at a beach to fish for dinner. 虽然不会游泳,但她乘着船越过水虎鱼和短吻鳄出没的水域,从小镇古柯(Coca)出发,经过两天后在夜间抵达沙滩,当晚的晚餐是亲手捕获的鱼。

During the journey she and her companions met representatives from the tribe, who had been contacted by outsiders before and have their own reserve near the national park agreed with Ecuador's authorities. 在旅程中,她与同伴们见到了部落的代表人物,外部世界的人曾联系过他们,并在获得厄瓜多尔当局的同意后,为他们在靠近国家公园的地方设立了居留地。

Once in the village of Bameno it was not plain sailing - Mr Bull had to be airlifted to hospital when a cut to his arm became infected, and she was bitten by parasites and developed a stomach infection - but she said the villagers were keen to tell her about their plight at the hand of oil companies. 在巴麦诺(Bameno)村落的生活并不一帆风顺。布尔因为肩膀割伤受到感染,不得不空运到医院;而贝谷姆被寄生虫叮咬后恶化成胃部的感染——但她表示村民的处境更为艰难,他们向她哭诉石油公司给他们带来的困境。

The Huaroani people live on top of some of South America's richest oil reserves, and campaigners say the invasion of outsiders has increased tension in their ancestral land. 瓦欧达尼族的居民所生活的土地,是南美洲石油资源最丰富的地区之一,部落的战士们表示,外来者的入侵让这片他们世代生活的土地受到越来越大的威胁。

Hostility began in 1956, when five evangelical missionaries from the U.S. were killed after trying to convert Huaroani villagers to Christianity in a widely-publicised case. 敌对状态始于1956年,当时来自美国的五名福音派传教士来到这里,试图让瓦欧达尼族居民归顺基督教,后被杀。这一事件被广泛报道。

It is said to have been the first documented time the tribe was contacted by the outside world. 这是记录该部落和外界联系的最早文献。

Nowadays contact with outsiders is more common - some tribe members have taken to wearing western clothing - but is still not always for the right reasons. 如今,这里与外界的联系越来越频繁,部分居民开始穿上西方的衣服。但这些联系并不总是基于正当理由。

As well as oil there are mineral reserves beneath the rainforest and it is a target for illegal loggers. Several roads have been built into Huaroani territory. 除了石油,在雨林下还有矿产储备,这成了非法采伐的目标。数条公路已被建成,直通瓦欧达尼族的栖息地。

Tribe members told a BBC documentary in 2011 that they could no longer grow food on river banks because they feared contamination would wash downstream. 部落的成员曾在2011年的BBC纪录片中表示,因为害怕自己所处的下游受到污染,他们已不敢在河岸上种植粮食作物。

And last year the charity Survival International, which campaigns for indigenous people's rights, said two Huaroani members were killed by fellow tribespeople as competition for land increased. 2013年,维护土著居民权利的公益组织——国际维护土著权利组织(Survival International)表示,两名瓦欧达尼族居民与邻近的另一土著民族因日渐尖锐的土地争端而被杀死。

Tribal leader Cawetipe Yeti said at the time: 'This is not a tourist zone. This is an area in a state of red alert. 部落领袖耶提(Cawetipe Yeti)当时表示:“这不是旅游区,这是警戒区。”

'We’re asking the authorities to act immediately on our request to provide logistical support to protect our uncontacted Taromenane brothers.' “我们希望当局对我们的要求立即予以回应:提供后勤的支持以保护无法和我们取得联系的达罗梅纳内(Taromenane)兄弟族群(另一个生活于亚苏尼国家公园的土著民族)。”

Ms Begum said she still keeps occasional contact with the tribe members over e-mail and even on Facebook, when they make the rare trip to the nearest town. 贝谷姆称,当部落的居民们难得前往离村最近的镇子时,她偶尔能与他们通过电子邮件甚至Facebook取得联系。

'I would love to go back to see them all again,' she said. “我很期待能再回去看望他们。”贝谷姆说。

Vocabulary tribe:部落 infiltrate:侵入 blowpipe:吹火管,吹箭筒 thong:比基尼泳衣的下半截或短裤 (在臀部后面只有一条很细的布条) macaw:琉璃金刚鹦鹉 initiate:接纳或介绍某人加入某团体 surreal:超现实的 piranha:水虎鱼(南美淡水小鱼,能掠食活动物) parasite:寄生虫 evangelical:福音的

(译者:旋转木马0930 编辑:侯玮萍)